### Physics Course Webpage

**Exam 1:****exam 2:****final exam:**

### Physics Course Webpage

**Exam 1:****exam 2:****final exam:**

Instructions: Clicking on the section name will show / hide the section.

The Slo Mo Guys

Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/user/1veritasium

Smarter Every Day https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6107grRI4m0o2-emgoDnAA

Minute Physics https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUHW94eEFW7hkUMVaZz4eDg

PhD TV https://www.youtube.com/user/phdcomics

Acapella Science https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTev4RNBiu6lqtx8z1e87fQ

**WELCOME TO PHYSICS AT ISM. I'M GLAD YOU ARE TAKING THIS COURSE.**You are reading our official class website. This is THE PLACE for my communication to you in this course.I expect you to look at it at least once a week to see assignments, updates, reminders, and notices. Every Sunday night I add the following week.This site is not locked, so your parents and guardians are encouraged to use it and see what you are doing. Please give them the link.You should always check here before you start your HW assignment, and you can subscribe so you'll get an email when I update it.I'll also post advice, clues, cartoons, current events, and fashion advice.Physics can explain so much, such as could you really put a passenger train through a loop-the-loop as shown here .The answer is here: http://what-if.xkcd.com/43/**Check out these videos: Do you want to help fly another stratospheric balloon this year?****I hope you saw the big eclipse one week ago!****This is the first week in the course webpage for Physics at ISM!**I use a blog format, so each week I'll add a new entry with assignments and information. YOU MUST LOOK HERE AT LEAST EACH WEEK.

I UPDATE THIS SITE ON SUNDAY NIGHT, USUALLY.

HW due (If any assignment isn't clear then you have the responsibility to clarify and/or correct. Telling me you didn't understand the assignment when it is due WILL NOT BE AN ACCEPTED EXCUSE.)

- due Tue: write name on edge of your text in dark marker--show me (yes, you must always bring your text to class)
- due Wed: read through section 1-5. Turn in a plot of altitude vs. time for this launch [if you can't read this youtube video, then go to https://serc.carleton.edu/dmvideos/players/mars_space_labo.html?hide_banner=true ]
- due Friday: Explain, as best you can, the physical phenomena happening during the ping pong cannon launch and the short flight and collision of the ball.
- HW due next Tuesday: 1, read p xviii, read through 1:1-7: web: do physlet below,
*print one page showing physlet*.*problems to hand in*: chapter 1: Q7; P 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 19 (P = problem, Q = question)- also due Tuesday: show plot due Wednesday using Excel for all calculations and show a fit of the data points, with the equation of the fit.

We will use many

*physlets*, which are "physics applets". They are cool. Here's the first one assigned for next monday.- http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/energy-skate-park and then click "run now". You should be able to see the window open and then play with the skate park guy. Be sure to download JAVA if it asks for it.

special assignment: one-on-one with Dr. F--

*come see me by 5 sept --*I need 5 min to ask a few questions and get to know youWeek 1 Points: (this is a rough list of what I expect you to learn in a week.)

- know how to access all class information and how the class will work
- be able to distinguish doing science from learning about science
- Differentiate dogma from observation
- Know the standard units in the SI system and how big they are
- Know and show how to use the fishbone method of conversions

**How scientists think.......**NOTE: if you miss completing some HW, you need to do it for the next class.

special assignment: one-on-one with Dr. F--

*come see me by 8 sept --*I need 5 min to ask a few questions and get to know youHW due Tuesday:

- HW due next Tuesday: 1, read p xviii, read through 1:1-7: web: do physlet below,
*print one page showing physlet*.*problems to hand in*: chapter 1: Q7; P 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 19 (P = problem, Q = question)- also due Tuesday: show plot due Wednesday using Excel for all calculations and show a fit of the data points, with the equation of the fit.

We will use many

*physlets*, which are "physics applets". They are cool.- http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/energy-skate-park and then click "run now". You should be able to see the window open and then play with the skate park guy. Be sure to download JAVA if it asks for it.

HW due Wednesday: Complete both sides of worksheet Sig Figs Practice. Also, use the inside front cover of your text to calculate: density of moon, density of earth, density of sun; report as kg/m

^{3}. Finally, do these 6 calculations and manage sig figs. 1. 544300^{2}2. π + 3 3. π / 3 4. π / 3.000005. 1.8x10

^{5 }x 4554000 6. 0.004533 + 0.2799 + 20 + 4500HW friday: 1: p-1, 2, 13, 17, 21, 45; Also, find the file "website assignment" in FILES and do that for today.

HW new for next Monday: chapter 1: Q-3, 4; P-3, 4, 5, 23, 43; measure your bedroom, report volume in SI units, sig figs

Points for this week:

- show ability to solve problems with units and Conversions
- Know which numbers of inside front cover to memorize
- Demonstrate significant figures and their use
- Understand science, what is physics, and how we were all experimentalists
- Know the use of “measurement”, “precision”, “accuracy” in science

*If you see these stick people then I'm using comics from xkcd.com. He studied physics and worked at NASA before making the world of science and engineering and math funny and poignant for us.*- HW due next Tuesday: 1, read p xviii, read through 1:1-7: web: do physlet below,
HW for Monday: chapter 1: Q-3, 4; P-3, 4, 5, 23, 43; measure your bedroom, report volume in SI units, sig figs

Quiz Tuesday: scientific notation, sig figs, and a simple calculation.

and in class we will measure the thickness of paperHW due Wed: chapter 1: COQ (chapter opening questions) 1-2 (see page 1). MCQ (MisConceptual Questions) 1,3,5,6

HW due Friday: 2: COQ; Q 1-9; P 1,2,3,4,5,9,17

NOTE: we are now done with chapter 1 in class, although you need to keep up practice with sig figs. The slides from class are posted above under Powerpoint ..... You can use them to study and review, or to relive those great times we all had in room 309.

HW due next Monday: chapter 2: Q 10, 11, 15; P 23, 25, 27, 61, 62. Also for this physlet, http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/moving-man I want you to try many cases of acceleration. Set up a condition where the man moves with negative velocity but positive acceleration, and print that condition of the physlet.

- Points: Velocity: average and instantaneous
- Show that x, v, t in kinematics work for any, including final x
_{f}, v_{f}, and t_{f} - Acceleration, average and instantaneous
- Understand kinematic equations for Motion at constant acceleration
- Be able to plot x, v, and a vs. t for simple 1-D motion
- Demonstrate the solution technique for kinematic problems

Warning: this is a critical period for this course. The new concepts such as

**graphing and defining a problem**that we are starting will be used all year. Do NOT fall behind in chapter 2 or 3. If you are not following the material in class or the problems, please come see me!I have open hours posted, I'm here after school, and we have Physics Study Group on Tuesday 5

^{th}. Stop by and see me.HW due Monday: chapter 2: Q 10, 11, 15; P 23, 25, 61, 62. Also for this physlet, http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/moving-man I want you to try many cases of acceleration. Set up a condition where the man moves with negative velocity but positive acceleration, and print that condition of the physlet.

Tuesday: 2: Q 12, 13; MCQ 4, 6, 9;

HW due Wednesday: 2: P: 6, 11, 26, 27, 31, 39

HW due Friday: retreat

HW due next Monday: 2: P- 7, 41, 45, 55, 69, 71,be able to draw the first 2 motion graphs (use Moving Man on PHET for help)

next week: bowling ball lab--kinematics

Points:

- Demonstrate memorization of kinematic equations
- Demonstrate use of kinematics in freefall problems
- Show memorization of sketch/list/choose method
- Show memorization of symbolic first, then numbers
- Demonstrate ability to draw 6 basic graphs of x,v,a vs. t as handout
- Add “avoided variable” list to kinematics table in the text

remember how we talked about how narrow the human experience is....check this out for a sense of perspective.

NOTE THAT CLASS SLIDES ARE NOW POSTED ABOVE IN A FOLDER.

HW due Monday: 2: P- 7, 45, 55, 69, 71,

HW due Tuesday: Do this practice problem. It would be worth 20 points on the exam.

Find the final velocity of a rock that falls 25m for each case below; for each part, solve first in symbolic form, then plug in the numbers.- a. if the initial velocity is zero.
- b. if the initial velocity is +5.0 m/s. It is thrown up into the air.
- c. if the initial velocity is -5.0 m/s. It is thrown down.
- d. comment on the answer for b and c. they should be the same. why.?

Be able to draw all 6 motion graphs. (use Moving Man on PHET for help)

HW due Wednesday: complete the practice exam which I will hand out on Tuesday, and also is in

**files**at top if you want to start early.HW due Friday: Exam 1 in class. Bring your calculator.

HW due next Monday: we start chapter 3. read 3:1-5, do 3: COQ; Q:1-4 P:1,3

You should be reading chapter 3 and have the first 4 sections reviewed before class on monday. Turn in chapter 3: Q 5-8, P 2,4 and use this physlet to show addition of vectors; http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/vector-addition/vector-addition_en.html

Also, start to play with the projectile motion PHET, although you don't need to print anything. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/projectile-motion

points:

- Show list of into to be written on the exam: kinematic eqns, steps to solve, conversion factors
- Demonstrate memorization of kinematic equations
- Demonstrate use of kinematics in freefall problems
- Show memorization of sketch/list/choose method
- Show memorization of symbolic first, then numbers
- Demonstrate ability to draw 6 basic graphs of x,v,a vs. t as handout
- Learn how vectors work

VECTORS IN DAILY LIFE.........

HW due Monday: HW due next Monday: we start chapter 3. read 3:1-5, do 3: COQ; Q:1-4 P:1,3

due Tuesday: Calculate velocity for the bowling ball from Monday and then calculate acceleration on the ramp. We will compare your numbers to Loggerpro GoMotion data.

You should be reading chapter 3 and have the first 4 sections reviewed before class on Tuesday.

due Wednesday : HW is chapter 3: Q 5-8, P 2,4 We will demonstrate friction of falling objects.

HW due Friday: 3: MCQ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. and play with this physlet to show addition of vectors; http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/vector-addition/vector-addition_en.html

HW due next Monday: 3: Q-10, 17, 18; P-5, 7, 9,11 show, using this physlet, what angle gives the maximum range for a given firing cannon. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/projectile-motion .

In class we will perform the lab "projectile motion of a ball". Your assignment is to read and know the lab before class.

points:

- you will start solving projectile motion problems this week.
- know what a vector is
- demonstrate how to add vectors graphically
- demonstrate how to resolve a vector into its components
- show how to add vectors by components and find the resultant vector
- demonstrate how to do projectile motion on the level

to get perspective, and to remember that the physics we are learning applies to all this..... ....

HW due Monday: In class we will perform the lab "projectile motion of a ball". Your assignment is to read and know the lab before class.

3: Q-10, 17, 18; P-5, 7, 9,11; show, using this physlet, what angle gives the maximum range for a given velocity of cannon. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/projectile-motionHW due Tuesday: none

HW due Wednesday: 3: Q-11, 20, P-17, 19, 21.

HW due Friday: P- 20, 23, 39, 55, 59. (2 hints for #23: (sinX)(cosX) = 1/2 sin(2X), and sin(2X) = sin(180-2X))

HW due next Monday: 3: MCQ 7-12; p- 18, 23 (do this problem experimentally at home; bring a picture to prove you did), write the list of classic problems for chapter 3 in your notebook.

Points: this is the week you master projectile motion

- demonstrate how to do projectile motion on the level
- demonstrate how to do projectile motion off the cliff
- demonstrate how to do projectile motion up off the cliff
- demonstrate how to do projectile motion down off the cliff

to continue our journey, this app includes the jouney to the smallest places http://htwins.net/scale2/

Lab update: the video files are located in the J drive and in FILES. I moved the due date to 27 October. A scaffold of your report can be found in FILES. You are free to use this.

HW due Monday: 3: MCQ 7-12; p- 18, 23 (do this problem experimentally at home; bring a picture to prove you did), write the list of classic problems for chapter 3 in your notebook I'll review HW from friday P- 20, 23, 39, 55, 59. (hints for #23: (sinX)(cosX) = 1/2 sin(2X), and sin(2X) = sin(180-2X))

Due Tuesday: before class, have in your possession all the distance data for each run (steel or glass) of lab 2 in a table with your name on it. Bring that and show me. there will be a quiz on one of the first two classic problems in chapter 3 (cannon on the level or car off a cliff)

Also Due Tuesday: in this video, a car is pushed into the river from 18 stories. I timed the fall at 3.2s. I estimate that the car fell 120 feet horizontally away from the building (the range). Using your physics, calculate the height of the fall and the horizontal velocity as it left the building. Report in SI units and in mph (miles per hour).

Wednesday: look at the PHET cannon launch again, and find two different angles of the launch that give the same Range. Write down both angles and bring that to class. https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/projectile-motion/projectile-motion_en.html .

Due Friday: CONFERENCES

For next Monday, show me that you have done the loggerpro analysis for the launch velocity of your steel ball off the ramp. The videos are posted in the J:drive under our class (and also in FILES above, but you'll have to download them from the website before you can import them to Loggerpro). If you plan to do the analysis at home, you will need to transport the data to your home via email or a USB-drive or from the website. You should plan on 30 minutes for this work the first time. Look at Using Loggerpro On Videos under Physics Tools for step by step instructions. Also use Help in Loggerpro. You are in the

*digital generation*, so i'm confident that you can figure it out.due Next Tuesday: Read sections 4-1 through 4-4; 4:COQ 1; Q-1,2,3,4,5 and: Q- 5, 8; P-1 and is a nice ESPN analysis of high jump. The jumping jumper jumps 93 inches, but his center of mass we'll assume goes up to 87 inches. Assume he lands on the same level (even though he really lands on the tall pad). How long is he in the air? I estimate that his forward travel, the Range, is 72 inches. So what is his v

_{x}at takeoff? what is the angle θ of his launch?points this week.

Be able to write the steps for solving projectile problems.

Know the requirements for completing a lab report

Know Newton's first and second laws of motion

Know that force is a push or a pullWelcome back. If any of you wish to know what I reported to your parents/guardians during the conferences, please see me and I'll happily tell you. If they didn't come to conferences, but you want to know, I'll happily tell you.

Due Monday, show me that you have done the Loggerpro analysis for the launch velocity of your steel ball off the ramp. The videos are posted in the J:drive under our class (and also in FILES above, but you'll have to download them from the website before you can import them to Loggerpro). If you plan to do the analysis at home, you will need to transport the data to your home via email or a USB-drive or from the website. You should plan on 30 minutes for this work the first time. Look at Using Loggerpro On Videos under Physics Tools for step by step instructions. Also use Help in Loggerpro.

Due Tuesday: Read sections 4-1 through 4-4; 4:COQ 1; Q-1,2,3,4,5, 8; P-1

and is a nice ESPN analysis of high jump. The jumping jumper jumps 93 inches, but his center of mass we'll assume goes up to 87 inches. Assume he lands on the same level (even though he really lands on the tall pad). How long is he in the air? I estimate that his forward travel, the Range, is 72 inches. So what is his v

_{x}at takeoff? what is the angle θ of his launch?Due Wednesday: 4: Q-9, 10, 11,12, 13; P-3, 5, 7 Using this video of a car skidding on ice, find the acceleration during the stop. Note that the car starts slowing at 0m on the scale. http://serc.carleton.edu/dmvideos/players/prius_skids.html?hide_banner=true

Due Friday: Lab report on projectile motion. Turn it in at the beginning of class.

HW due next Monday: 4: Q-14, 15,16, 17, 18; P-11, 12,15, 17, 70; play Robot Moving Company (use tab 4), try for max score. Bring in print of your top score. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/forces-and-motion

goals for this week:

- learn and demonstrate the steps to do ΣF=ma problems

NOTE: I also posted a practice exam in FILES.

The study guide for the exam will be handed out Tuesday.

HW due Monday: 4: Q-14, 15,16, 17, 18; P-11, 12,15, 17, 70; play Robot Moving Company (use tab 4), try for max score. Bring in print of your top score. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/forces-and-motion

HW due Tue: 4: MCQ 1, 3, 7, 8; P- 20,26,37,39,41

HW due Wednesday: Do these three problems: 1) In an experiment like your recent lab, you found the steel ball landed 85cm from the launch, and you measure v

_{o}using video analysis to be 6.44 m/s. Given this data, what is the height of the table launch point? Derive the equations you need starting from the kinematic equations. 2) I throw a ball up in the air and it lands at my feet, 1.5m lower than where I released it. The time of total flight is 2.00 s. a) what initial vertical velocity did I throw the ball? b) How high did I throw the ball? c) if the ball landed 3.5m from me, what was the initial horizontal velocity of the throw? d) If I was on the moon, how high could I throw that same ball?HW due Friday: solve these versions of some classic problems. Show all parts of the solution neatly on your paper.

**classics 2 & 3:**^{o}. There is no friction. What is your acceleration, and how fast are you going after 15 m? Then you hit a muddy portion of the same slope, and you stop in 10.m. What is the coefficient of friction on this muddy portion?**classic 4**: You have mass of 65kg. You take your scale to the elevator and stand on it. What is your weight as the elevator goes up at a=0.22m/s^{2}. What is the weight as the elevator goes down at a=0.33m/s^{2}**classic 5**: You, at 65kg, jump from an airplane and freefall with air drag of 150. N. What is your acceleration? Then you open the parachute, and slow down to a constant falling speed of 8.0 m/s. What is the drag force of the parachute through the air?**Classic kinematic**: A basketball bounces up from the floor at 55^{o}and hits the floor 9.0 m further. With what velocity did it leave the floor? How high will it bounce?**classic rope**: You need to cross an aligator infested river. You find a rope tied 2.0m above the water to trees that are 33m across the river, and the rope has a tension of 1200N. Your mass is 55kg. Can you make it without touching the water?Next Monday: You can rewrite up to 3 points of corrections for the projectile lab. That is due Tuesday. Exam 2 in class (the study guide was handed out and is posted in FILES)

Points/objectives this week

- demonstrate in HW and check problems how to do F=ma problems
- develop a list of classic problems for chapter 4
- show that you can capture data from an experiment.

HW Due Monday: Exam 2 in class (the study guide was handed out and is posted in FILES)

Due Tuesday: You can rewrite up to 3 points of corrections for the projectile lab. we will cover the effects of g forces on the human body. (NASA report)

**WE DAY is wednesday.**Let me know on Tuesday if you will attend WeDayHW due Wednesday:study section 5-1&2. 5: COQ 1,2; Q-1, 2,3,5, 6,

HW due Friday: 5: P-1, 3, 5

HW due next Monday: 5: Q-4,6,8,9 5: P-2, 5

HW due next Tuesday: 5: P-7,8,11,15

goals for week:

- solidify chapter 4 classic problems and how to solve
- apply F=ma to the ping pong cannon
- learn the language of circular motion
- be able to do kinematics for circular motion

*Even kittens can learn physics.*HW due Monday: 5: Q-4,6,8,9 5: P-2, 5.

HW due Tuesday: 5: P-7,8,11,15.

And Wednesday: FINALS START. GOOD LUCK. COME SEE ME WITH ANY QUESTIONS OR TO PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLVING.

- demonstrate that you know:
- •Cannon on the level
- •Car horizontal off a cliff
- •Ball up off a cliff, find final velocity only
- •Ball down off a cliff, find final velocity
- •Throw a ball up to a cliff ledge

Welcome to Term 2! We have 3 busy weeks before break, so please stay focused and you'll be rewarded by Santa.

HW due Monday: none, but be sure to review chapter 5 sections 1-3, and read 5-5 and 5-6. (we will skip section 5-4.)

Tuesday: Calculate for the centrifuge running at 3300 rpm: period, T; frequency, f; speed of the tube; centripital acceleration in the tube; g force developed; the force ("weight") of 3.0 grams of water in the tube. The following problems were due before break, so make sure you have them done: 5: COQ 1,2; Q-1, 2,3,5, 6, P-1, 3, 5. Shoot the PP canon in class for the next lab.

HW due Wednesday: this was also due before finals: 5: Q-4,6,8,9 5: P-2, 5,7,8,11,15 so please review them, and new problems 5: Q-11 (draw a sketch to show answer), 12, 13, 14; P-69

HW due Friday: 5: Q-15,17,21; P-12,28,29

HW due next Monday: 5: MCQ 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8; P: 33,43,45 and show me your Loggerpro analysis of the ping pong cannon. The video is posted in FILES and in the J drive. It was shot at 1000 frames per second. Show both the x vs. t and the v vs. t plots.

goals for this week:

- Demonstrate solutions of the flat turn with friction and banked turn no friction.
- Know the universal gravitation law, and know that it forms the most important centripetal acceleration in the universe
- Be able to solve satellite problems

HW due Monday: 5: MCQ 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8; P: 33,43,45 and show me your Loggerpro analysis of the ping pong cannon. The video is posted in FILES and in the J drive. It was shot at 1000 frames per second. Show both the x vs. t and the v vs. t plots.

HW due Tuesday: open Energy Skate Park physlet basics listed below and operate it with and without friction; write by hand a copy of the energy bar graph for the friction case and describe in a few words what the bar graph shows..

HW due Wednesday: chapter 6: Q-1,2,3,4,5,6; P-1, 3, 5, 9 ,17,18

Given what you know of the time for the earth to circle the sun, and the distance to the sun, calculate the mass of the sun;

HW due Friday: 6: MCQ 1, 5, 6, 7, 8; Q-9, 10,15,17; P-20, 21,26, 27, 31

Look at this ISS video before class:HW due next Monday: 6: Q-12, P-29, 23;

Write the 8 classics for chapter 5 in your notebook. Find them on the powerpoint slides posted above.*in class we will perform the energy minilab*HW due next Wednesday: 1 page data analyzed for in-class minilab on energy. Show that the measured potential energy equals the measured kinetic energy. Show that the measured work to lift the object equals the PE and KE. And what fraction of the energy is lost to friction.

Demos: spring jumper or dart gun

Friday Mini lab: in class falling objects measured. Do energy balance.

Physlets: Energy skate park: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/energy-skate-park-basics

Points for this week:

- learn and use kinetic energy, potential energy, and work
- show you can do work problems with and without friction
- be able to define energy and relate this to work.
- calculate energy expended for simple operations

- This section
HW due Monday: 6: Q-12, P-29, 23; .

(we will do the energy minilab in class. as usual, if you miss the minilab, come see me to get the information.)

HW due Tuesday: Ping Pong minilab is due. Look carefully at the assignment sheet.

HW due Wednesday: 1. Calculate how much work you do to climb the stairs from my lab to the 400 floor (up one level). 2. Using energy methods, find the average force needed to accelerate a 66g rocket from rest straight up so that at 550m elevation it is travelling at 330m/s. Start with Wnc = ΔPE + ΔKE.

HW due Friday: Do we have class. Read the info below on the physics of Santa Claus. What is the KE of the fully loaded sleigh travelling at full speed??

Points for this week:

- show that you can determine the velocity of a falling object with and without friction
- know how to calculate the work done by friction on a sliding object
- demonstrate that you can analyze all the energy terms of the jumping bug
- calculate the power of a person climbing the stairs

THE PHYSICS OF SANTA CLAUS. http://www.snopes.com/holidays/christmas/santa/physics.asp

I. There are approximately two billion children (persons under 18) in the world. However, since Santa is a Christian myth, this reduces the workload for Christmas night to 15% of the total, or 378 million (according to the Population Reference Bureau). At an average of 3.5 children per house hold, that comes to 108 million homes, presuming that there is at least one good child in each.

II. Santa has about 31 hours of Christmas to work with, thanks to the different time zones and the rotation of the earth, assuming he travels east to west (which seems logical). This works out to 967.7 visits per second.

This is to say that for each household with a good child, Santa has around 1/1000th of a second to park the sleigh, hop out, jump down the chimney, fill the stockings, distribute the remaining presents under the tree, eat whatever snacks have been left for him, get back up the chimney, jump into the sleigh and get on to the next house. Assuming that each of these 108 million stops is evenly distributed around the earth (which, of course, we know to be false, but will accept for the purposes of our calculations), we are now talking about 0.78 miles per household; a total trip of 75.5 million miles, not counting bathroom stops or breaks. This means Santa's sleigh is moving at 650 miles per second -- 3,000 times the speed of sound. For purposes of comparison, the fastest man-made vehicle, the Ulysses space probe, moves at a poky 27.4 miles per second, and a conventional Reindeer can run (at best) 15 miles per hour.

III. The payload of the sleigh adds another interesting element. Assuming that each child gets nothing more than a medium sized Lego set (two pounds), the sleigh is carrying over 500 thousand tons, not counting Santa himself. On land, a conventional Reindeer can pull no more than 300 pounds. Even granting that the "flying" Reindeer could pull ten times the normal amount, the job can't be done with eight or even nine of them -- Santa would need 360,000 of them. This increases the payload, not counting the weight of the sleigh, another 54,000 tons, or roughly seven times the weight of the Queen Elizabeth (the ship, not the monarch).

IV. 600,000 tons traveling at 650 miles per second crates enormous air resistance -- this would heat up the Reindeer in the same fashion as a spacecraft re-entering the earth's atmosphere. The lead pair of Reindeer would absorb 14.3 quintillion joules of energy per second each. In short, they would burst into flames almost instantaneously, exposing the Reindeer behind them and creating deafening sonic booms in their wake. The entire Reindeer team would be vaporized within 4.26 thousandths of a second, or right about the time Santa reached the fifth house on his trip. Not that it matters, however, since Santa, as a result of accelerating from a dead stop to 650 m.p.s. in .001 seconds, would be subjected to forces of 17,500 g's. A 250 pound Santa (which seems ludicrously slim) would be pinned to the back of the sleigh by 4,315,015 pounds of force, instantly crushing his bones and organs and reducing him to a quivering blob of pink goo.

V. Finally, remember that Santa lands on the roof of each house, and there are at least three reasons each house would be destroyed completely. First, the weight of the reindeer and sleigh, as shown, will crush the house. Second, the reindeer and sleigh while flying have a momentum of 6x10

^{13}kg*m/s, and must stop in less than 1/10,000 second, giving a Third Law force on the roof of 6x10^{17}N, or over 6 billion tons. Third, the heat of all those exploding reindeer would incinerate the rubble.**Sunita Lyn**"**Suni**"**Williams**née**Pandya**^{[1]}(born September 19, 1965) is a former American astronaut and a United States Navy officer. She holds the records for longest single space flight by a woman (195 days),^{[2]}total spacewalks by a woman (seven), and most spacewalk time for a woman (50 hours, 40 minutes).^{[3]}^{[4]}Williams was assigned to the International Space Station as a member of Expedition 14 and Expedition 15. In 2012, she served as a flight engineer on Expedition 32 and then commander of Expedition 33.

This is the YouTube tour we watched.